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Thyroid: Symptoms, Effects and Treatments

Θυρεοειδής: Συμπτώματα, επιπτώσεις και θεραπείες
Ο thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of the neck. It is part of the endocrine system, which consists of a series of glands that produce hormones and control various body functions. The thyroid produces two main hormones, trithyroid and tetrathyroid hormones, which affect our metabolism.
His hormones thyroid are responsible for its control metabolism which is the process of burning energy from the food we consume. he metabolism it affects energy production, body temperature, heart function, psychology, growth and reproduction.
Moreover, the thyroid it plays an important role in regulating the energy required for our nervous system to function. Thyroid hormones work with other hormones to control the growth and function of our brain, muscles and bones.

Symptoms of thyroid dysfunction

When the thyroid is not working properly, it can cause various symptoms and health problems. It is important to recognize these symptoms and seek medical help to diagnose and treat thyroid dysfunction.


Ο hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid produces fewer hormones than the body needs. This can be due to various causes, such as autoimmune disorders, hormonal imbalances or poor diet. THE hypothyroidism may cause the following symptoms:

  • Weight gain: Patients with hypothyroidism may notice weight gain even though they have not changed their eating habits. Reduced thyroid hormone production slows metabolism and can lead to weight gain.
  • Fatigue and weakness: Patients with hypothyroidism may feel constantly tired and fatigued, even after they have rested or slept for a long time. A lack of hormones affects energy production and can lead to weakness and fatigue.
  • Psychological changes: Hypothyroidism can affect the psychology of patients, causing depression, loss of interest and isolation. Patients may feel depressed, apathetic and disconnected from the world around them.


"Hashimoto's" is a form of the hypothyroid condition, which affects the thyroid gland, an important gland located in the neck and responsible for the production of thyroid hormones. "Hashimoto's" is also known as chronic hypothyroidism and is characterized by the hypofunction of the thyroid gland. Its main characteristics are fatigue, weakness, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, exhaustion, depression and finally complications and disorders in the throat. 


Hyperthyroidism is a condition where the thyroid produces more hormones than the body needs. This can be due to autoimmune disorders, overactive thyroid or hormonal imbalances. Hyperthyroidism can cause the following symptoms:

  • Weight loss: Patients with hyperthyroidism may notice weight loss even though they have not changed their eating habits. Overactivity of the thyroid leads to an acceleration of the metabolism and an increase in the burning of energy.
  • Nervousness and restlessness: Patients with hyperthyroidism may feel nervous, anxious and have trouble relaxing. An overactive thyroid affects the nervous system and can lead to increased anxiety.
  • Tachycardia: Patients with hyperthyroidism may notice an increased heart rate, even when they are at rest. Overproduction of hormones by the thyroid affects heart function and can lead to tachycardia.

It's important to note that thyroid disorders can cause other symptoms and health problems, too it is important to consult a specialist to diagnose and treat the condition.


Effects of thyroid dysfunction on our health:

  • Cardiovascular Health Complications: Thyroid disorders can affect our cardiovascular health. Hypothyroidism can lead to reduced heart function, a slower heart rate, and an increased risk for heart disease. Conversely, hyperthyroidism can cause tachycardia, an increased heart rate, and an increased risk for arrhythmias and heart problems.
  • Effects on the nervous system: The thyroid affects our nervous system and can have effects on our psychology, anxiety and psychosocial functioning. Hypothyroidism can cause depression, fatigue, inability to concentrate and mental sluggishness. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism can cause restlessness, anxiety, nervousness and inability to sleep.
  • Effects on reproduction: The thyroid also affects our reproductive health. Thyroid disorders can affect ovulation and lead to infertility or miscarriages. Women who have difficulty conceiving without a family history of infertility or miscarry in the early stages of pregnancy may be screened for possible thyroid disorders.


Treating Thyroid Dysfunction:

Η treatment of thyroid dysfunction it depends on the type and severity of the disorder. The most common treatment methods include drug therapy and surgery. Let's see more details for each case:

Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid):

  • Drug treatment: Hyperthyroidism is treated with antithyroid drugs such as methimazole and carbimazole. These create some side effects such as vertigo, hair loss, anemia, rashes and hepatitis.
  • Surgery: In some cases, such as large hyperthyroidism or the presence of tumors, it may be necessary to remove part or all of the thyroid.

Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid):

  • Drug treatment: Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroxine. However, in addition to thyroxine treatment, a combination of levothyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) can be taken. This combination is used only in cases where the classical treatment with levothyroxine does not have the desired results.
  • Nutrition management: Certain dietary changes, such as increasing consumption of iodine-rich foods (such as seaweed), may help support thyroid function.
  • Selenium: Selenium is one trace element which plays a role in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. In addition, increased selenium intake can slow down the course of the disease, so that hypothyroidism can be delayed.

It is important to note that proper thyroid management and ongoing follow-up by a physician is vital to maintaining your health. Work with your doctor to tailor your treatment plan to your individual needs.

Liability Disclaimer

This website contains information provided for your information and understanding. This content does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or instruction. You should not draw conclusions or make decisions about your health based solely on this content. Before taking any measures for your health, we recommend that you consult your health care professional or a relevant qualified professional.
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